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Species Profile - Velociraptor

Species Profile - Velociraptor

Look, raptors get a bad rap because people don't understand that they are, and will always be, alpha predators. Our job is to help them... the raptors... understand that we are as well.

- Owen Grady

Velociraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur that originated from Late Cretaceous Asia. Highly intelligent pack hunters and one of the most famous dinosaurs, Velociraptors were engineered by InGen far larger than their base genome, and have proven to be one of the deadliest animals bred for Jurassic Park and Jurassic World.[1]

Velociraptor is first unlocked by the Hammond Foundation on Isla Muerta, where they can prove to be challenging to contain, particularly when stressed due to the island's frequent storms. They play a critical role in many missions carried out by the Hammond Foundation's three divisions.

History

Velociraptor was the first species of dinosaur successfully cloned by InGen in 1986, for eventual display as an attraction in Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar.[2]

In total, twenty one Velociraptors were cloned on Isla Sorna, with eight of them transported to Nublar. However, by the time of the Jurassic Park incident in 1993, the dominant raptor had killed all but two others.[3] Having systematically probed their fences for weakness prior to the incident, the Velociraptors escaped into the park, resulting in the death of two park administrators, before being killed by the park's Tyrannosaurus.[4]

According to a 1996 InGen report, at least one of these Velociraptors successfully changed sex began breeding, though by 1994, no Velociraptors were reported on Isla Nublar.[3] Similarly, the surviving Velociraptors on Isla Sorna, which had been abandoned in the wake of Hurricane Clarissa, had also begun breeding, establishing nesting grounds in the island's interior.[5]

Raptor1

A Velociraptor attacking a visitor.

In 1997, a pack of these Velociraptors were encountered, and were responsible for killing several members of an InGen team sent to capture dinosaurs and bring them to the mainland.[5] In 2001, a pack of visually dissimilar Velociraptors were encountered by the survivors of a plane crash on Sorna, displaying extraordinary levels of problem-solving intelligence.[6]

In 2012, InGen began the Integrated Behavioral Raptor Intelligence Study, or IBRIS Project, to measure the intelligence of Velociraptors, ostensibly for an eventual trained Velociraptor exhibit in Jurassic World, while in reality, for potential military applications. Spearheaded by Owen Grady, by 2015, the IBRIS Project actively studied a pack of four Velociraptors—Charlie, Delta, Echo, and the pack leader, Blue.[7][8] During the rampage of the Indominus rex, which was created primarily by combining the genome of a Velociraptor with that of a T. rex, the raptors were released on the island, and while they briefly acknowledged the Indominus as their alpha, they obeyed Grady's order to turn on the hybrid. Three of the raptors were killed in the ensuing battle, which ended with the Indominus defeated due to the combined efforts of Blue, the T. rex and the park's Mosasaurus.[8] After the incident, Blue became the last surviving Velociraptor.

Three years later, Blue was among the dinosaurs planned to be rescued from the impending eruption of Mount Sibo on Isla Nublar, prompting Owen Grady to join an expedition to save the island's surviving dinosaurs. During the rescue mission, Grady managed to track the location of Blue from her tracking device, resulting in her capture by a team of mercenaries, one of whom seriously injured the raptor. After being cured by a blood transfusion from the T. rex, Blue was taken to Dr. Henry Wu's lab, where he planned on using her to train a new generation of Indoraptors.

However, Blue was later freed from her cage and after an engagement with Lockwood Security guards, escaped into the mansion. Upon arriving at the upper levels of the manor, Blue confronted the Indoraptor and became locked into a brutal battle, ultimately resulting in the hybrid's death. Along with the surviving dinosaurs, Blue was later released into the wild and was last seen surveying the landscape of northern California.[9]

Description

Among the most intelligent and lethal predatory dinosaurs in the world, Velociraptors are pack hunters which hunt together to bring down prey larger than themselves. Their intellect is only enhanced by their social behavior, making them dangerous dinosaurs that should be looked after closely. The base genome of Velociraptor is a plain teal color.

Paleontology

Perhaps among the most famous members of the dromaeosaur family, Velociraptor was a dromaeosaurid dinosaur that lived around 75-71 million years ago in Mongolia. It was about 1.8 (6.8 feet) long, 0.7 (1.6 feet) meters tall, and weighed 19.7 kilograms (43 pounds). Its skull was long and narrow, with 26-28 widely spaced teeth on each side of the jaw.

The teeth were strongly serrated on the backside than the front. The jaws of dromaeosaurids were similar to a Komodo dragon and probably could deliver a weak bite. The arms were long, with comparatively long fingers. The second finger was the longest, with the first being shortest. The arms show signs of quill nobs, confirming that Velociraptor had feathers and "wings". The legs were short and stocky, and not made for high-speed chases, but instead for long endurance chases. The feet had four toes each, but two touched the ground, as the first made up the dewclaw and the second the enlarged "sickle claw". The tail was relatively stiff, and not allowing much movement for bending, although it was flexible enough to curl around the body. Velociraptor was found in the Djadochta Formation in Mongolia.

It is known from over a dozen fossils, the most famous of one locked in combat with Protoceratops. It is currently unknown how dromaeosaurids like Velociraptor hunted, but it is generally agreed that they did not slash their prey open with their sickle claw. The leading theory is currently that dromaeosaurids leaped on the backs of their prey, using their foot claws to restrain the prey while they continuously bite it while flapping their "wings" to maintain balance.

The general consensus in the Paleontological community is that birds are direct descendants of dromaeosaurid dinosaurs and that Velociraptor had feathers, as fossils of some of the specimens' forearms show bumps that appear to be quill knobs. Such structures are present in modern birds and have been used to give support to the long, pennaceous feathers of their wings in the absence of feather imprints. Dromaeosaurid fossils with the skin impressions preserved such as Microraptor show broad wing-like feathers on the arms and the bare places being the last half of the snout and feet.

Velociraptor coexisted with a wide variety of dinosaurs, such as the ceratopsian Protoceratops, the hadrosaurid Saurolophus, the ankylosaurid Tarchia, the ornithomimid Gallimimus, the tyrannosaurid Tarbosaurus, and the bizarre theropod Therizinosaurus.

Cosmeticres Cosmetics

Alpineicon ALPINE Aridicon ARID Steppeicon STEPPE 1 Tundraicon TUNDRA Vividicon VIVID
RaptorAlpine
RaptorArid
RaptorSteppe
RaptorTundra
RaptorVivid

Trivia

  • Velociraptor was the tenth dinosaur to receive a species profile, on 23 March 2018.
  • Velociraptor can bite with a force of over 8,000 newtons of force, which is the equivalent to an alligator and crocodile.[1] This statistic is based on a controversial study done on the real life Deinonychus which gave a similar estimate to their bite force.
  • The base genome of Velociraptor is based on the appearance of Delta from Jurassic World.
  • Velociraptor has appeared in virtually all of the Jurassic Park franchise's novels, films, games, and other media, including Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis, considered by many to be Jurassic World Evolution's spiritual predecessor.
  • The Velociraptor of the Jurassic Park franchise were primarily based upon Deinonychus in terms of build and location, though they were considerably larger. The reason for the name ultimately being changed was due to a study by Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul classifying the species as Velociraptor antirrhopus. Michael Crichton cited this study for reference and apologetically decided to use the genus name Velociraptor, because it sounded dramatically scary and imposing. The concept art of the films and novels directly label the animals as Deinonychus.[10]
  • It was once thought that Velociraptor and Deinonychus in the Jurassic Park film canon, much like in the novel canon, are synonymous, and that Deinonychus was the primary basis for Velociraptor. However, it was proven that Deinonychus exists in the film canon, as they appear in the Holoscape and DPG List as a separate known genus. How the two differ in the film canon has not yet been firmly established.
  • Velociraptor is used to create three types of hybrids: the Indominus rex, the Indoraptor, and the Spinoraptor.

Gallery

References

Further reading


External links

Smallwikipedialogo Velociraptor on Wikipedia

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