“Ah, yes. The 'tyrant lizard'. The Tyrannosaurus rex. Favorite of early century fiction writers and adolescent children everywhere. And why? Because it represents everything we fear about the past. It's what we believe that we've conquered, even though it ceased to exist before humanity had reached the proto-ape stage. And that was true. Until now. Until you.”
- - Dr. Ian Malcolm
Tyrannosaurus, often referred to as its full name Tyrannosaurus rex or simply T. rex for short, is a genus of tyrannosauridae dinosaur that originated from Late Cretaceous North America. A large, territorial, and powerful bipedal predator and arguably the most famous dinosaur in the world, T. rex prefer an enclosure to themselves and quickly become stressed when placed with another large carnivore, which can often result in deadly territorial duels.
Tyrannosaurus was one of the first dinosaurs cloned on Isla Sorna by InGen, as the centerpiece of the original Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar. After the abandonment of the park and the subsequent creation of Jurassic World, Tyrannosaurus became one of the park's most popular, and deadly, attractions. Tyrannosaurus is unlocked on Isla Tacaño, and can subsequently be found in several dig sites across North America.
One of the last species of non-avian dinosaur to evolve before the end of the Cretaceous period, Tyrannosaurus was first cloned by InGen on Isla Sorna in the early 1990s, with a single adult female T. rex present on Isla Nublar, and six on Isla Sorna. Intended as the main attraction at Jurassic Park, the large female Tyrannosaurus was placed in an enclosure in the east of the island, where it was eventually intended to be joined by a juvenile. In 1993, however, during the fateful inspection of the park, the Tyrannosaurus escaped from its exhibit due to a power outage and was given free rein across the island.
Upon killing two of the Park's escaped Velociraptors, the T. rex was left unrivaled among the carnivores present on Isla Nublar and established a territory which covered much of the island. In 1994, a team sent to Isla Nublar reported that the T. rex was responsible for numerous attacks against the island's herds of Gallimimus and Parasaurolophus, and had attempted to hunt the massive Brachiosaurus.
In 1997, a breeding pair of Tyrannosaurus and their infant were encountered on Isla Sorna, by an InGen team sent to pillage the island and establish a new dinosaur park on the mainland. Despite being responsible for numerous deaths, the male Tyrannosaurus and its infant were captured and shipped to San Diego as the main attraction of Jurassic Park: San Diego. In what became known as the San Diego Incident, the buck escaped onto the streets of the city, causing numerous fatalities before being lured back to the San Diego Docks, where it was eventually transported back to Isla Sorna with the infant.
Soon after the incident, InGen was purchased by Masrani Global, which began construction of Jurassic World on Isla Nublar. In violation of the Gene Guard Act, which forbade the cloning of new prehistoric animals, as well as access to Isla Sorna, one hundred days after InGen was purchased, scientists on Sorna bred several new species of dinosaur, including a fearsome Spinosaurus.
In 2001, the survivors of a plane crash on Sorna witnessed the fiercely territorial Spinosaur kill a T. rex, which had entered its territory. The introduction of the Spinosaurus, and numerous other species of dinosaur, severely damaged the ecosystem of Isla Sorna, prompting Masrani to transport the surviving animals to Isla Nublar in 2004. It is unknown if any of Isla Sorna's Tyrannosaurus were rescued, though, by 2015, Jurassic World exhibited only the very same animal bred for the original park.
In 2002, this T. rex was captured by InGen Security and eventually housed in an exhibit upon the grand opening of the park in 2004. As with the original park, Jurassic World marketed the Tyrannosaurus as its main attraction, depicting its likeness on official merchandise. The specimen was known by park workers as "Rexy". However, by 2015, with attendance slipping, Dr. Henry Wu used the base genome of a Tyrannosaurus, hybridized with Velociraptor and numerous other species of prehistoric and modern animals, to create the Indominus rex.
When the Indominus escaped from its enclosure, park operations officer Claire Dearing released the T. rex from her enclosure, resulting in a vicious fight between the two predators. Although the T. rex was overpowered by the hybrid, it managed to defeat the Indominus due to the efforts of a Velociraptor and a Mosasaurus. After the incident, which resulted in the abandonment of Jurassic World, the T. rex became wild on Isla Nublar once more. Several months later, a team of mercenaries was sent to the island to recover a bone of the Indominus, narrowly escaping an encounter with the T. rex as well as the Mosasaurus.
Three years later, during the volcanic eruption of Mount Sibo, the T. rex was involved in a stampede of dinosaurs fleeing the destruction, where she killed a Carnotaurus. The T. rex was subsequently captured by mercenaries sent by Eli Mills, who brought her and the surviving dinosaurs to Lockwood manor in northern California, where they were intended to be auctioned off to the highest bidder.
However, after the auction was disrupted, the T. rex and the other dinosaurs were later released from their cages into the wilds of Northern California. The T. rex promptly killed Mills before crushing the Indominus bone with her foot and moving off into the forest. After a period of time, she made her way to a nearby zoo and entered the enclosure of a lion, roaring aggressively toward the big cat.
“A T. rex will always draw attention, but I shouldn't have to remind you how dangerous they can be. The world has never seen a more alpha predator.”
- - Dr. Kajal Dua
Among the largest predatory dinosaurs of all time, Tyrannosaurus rex is a species of tyrannosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period. It lived throughout western North America at the end of the Cretaceous period alongside of other dinosaurs such as the ceratopsians Triceratops and Torosaurus, the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus, the armored Ankylosaurus, the pachycephalosaurs Pachycephalosaurus, Stygimoloch and Dracorex, the smaller theropod Troodon, and the ornithomimid Struthiomimus, making it one of the latest species of non-avian dinosaurs to evolve prior to the great extinction 65 million years ago. The base genome of the Tyrannosaurus is primarily dark brown, though other variants are known to exist.
Behavior and Traits
Tyrannosaurus is a powerful carnivorous dinosaur representing one of the pinnacles of the Hammond Foundation's operations in the Muertes Archipelago. A temperamental species in comparison to other dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus do not tolerate variations from their preferred environment, which should ideally consist of a mix between open grassland to roam, and open forests, from which they can ambush their prey. If their enclosure fails to meet these requirements, the T. rex may become stressed and attempt to escape.
Unlike most of the other large carnivores such as Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, and Spinosaurus, Tyrannosaurus is content with solitude and become stressed when placed in an enclosure with another member of their species. This will result in an often fatal fight for dominance. If more than one Tyrannosaurus is kept together, its best to exhibit them in a large enclosure so they can establish separate territories. Similar clashes, often to the death, can occur between similarly sized carnivores such as Spinosaurus, while heavily armored herbivores such as Ankylosaurus, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops are more than capable of fighting back.
Perhaps the best known of all dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus was truly a tyrannical predator. It had a bite force of almost 6,000 kg of pressure, giving it arguably the strongest jaw ever seen amongst terrestrial carnivores with only extremely large crocodilians or marine predators rivaling it. Large individuals could reach lengths of 43 feet and grow to 13 feet tall, with the average still being a respectably huge 40 feet long and 12 feet tall. Its teeth are actually blunt and relied more on the bite force than a serrated edge like other theropods. This was an adaptation to crush bones and bite through body armor, allowing adult Tyrannosaurus to both bring down armored prey such as Ankylosaurids and Ceratopsians, as well as process a carcass efficiently by crunching bones and tougher tissues to eat.
Curiously this is not true with young Tyrannosaurus who had a much leaner, thin build and narrow, serrated teeth. This suggests the young of the species chased down prey more actively and likely ate different animals than the adults. In the past, young and teenage specimens of the genus were mistaken for different species or genera, Nanotyrannus being a notable example as most paleontologist now believe it to be a teenage Tyrannosaurus rex. A second possible species exists in Mongolia in the form of the almost equally huge Tarbosaurus bataar, which if true would be reclassified as Tyrannosaurus bataar.
While skin samples of Tyrannosaurus rex do show the genus having small scales, it is considered likely the species was unique amongst large theropods in that it sported primitive feathers of some sort somewhere on the body or during its lifetime. It wasn't as heavily feathered as early members of its family such as Yutyrannus, so any feathers were likely along the back or when the animal was young and might need extra insulation to regulate its body temperature.
For much of the twentieth century, Tyrannosaurus was regarded as a primitive, murderous beast that roamed the jungle as a solitary hunter. However, this concept has since been dropped, as deep lacerations in the skulls of many specimens suggest the animal fought others of its own kind on a regular basis, a common trait of a social species defending territory and young from rivals, and likely hunted in small groups, probably family packs.
It lived alongside large herbivores like Ankylosaurus and Edmontosaurus, the latter likely being a regular prey item for the active hunter, as well as the famous Triceratops. They're found coexisting with a sauropod about the size of an Argentinosaurus, called Alamosaurus. Of course, alone, they would never attack an adult, but instead, attack juveniles. A family group can attack a sick or an old individual. Tyrannosaurus was the perfect predator for armored prey even up equal size to itself, however, their blunter teeth and narrower jaw gape would have made hunting sauropods difficult.
- Tyrannosaurus was the eighteenth dinosaur to receive a Species Profile, on 15 May 2018. Despite being identified by its specific name T. rex, it was incorrectly described as a ‘genus’ of theropod dinosaur.
- Along with Velociraptor, Tyrannosaurus is the most prolific dinosaur in the franchise, appearing in every novel, film, and game, including Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis, considered by many to be Jurassic World Evolution's spiritual predecessor.
- The base genome of the Tyrannosaurus in Jurassic World Evolution is based on the Isla Nublar Tyrannosaurus rex from the original Jurassic Park, as well as the Jurassic World films.
- In reality, many paleontologists believe that Tyrannosaurus was at some stage of its life cycle, at least partially feathered. A report in 2017 analyzed skin impressions and concluded that large-bodied tyrannosaurs were more likely covered in scales and that if feathers existed, they were limited to the dorsum in adult specimens all because the feathers can only be found on young T. rex as the dinosaur matured.
- In the films, it was depicted to only see movement all because of the frog DNA it got mixed with. In reality, Tyrannosaurus possessed stereoscopic or binocular vision, comparable to that of a bird of prey.
- In the films, Tyrannosaurus was depicted to reach 32 mph. In reality, it could only reach 15-25 mph.
- The Tyrannosaurus in the game is about the same size as, if not slightly larger, than Scotty, the largest known Tyrannosaurus specimen.
- T. rex is currently the only known species of the Tyrannosaurus genus. Originally, the closely related Tarbosaurus was considered to be a species of Tyrannosaurus before being reclassified.
- Tyrannosaurus was slightly downsized in Update 1.4 from 14 meters to 13.5 meters.
- ↑ http://islanublar.jurassicworld.com/dinosaurs/tyrannosaurus-rex/
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 http://www.dinosaurprotectiongroup.com/what-killed-the-gene-guard-act.html Dinosaur Protection Group - What Killed the Gene Guard Act
- ↑ JurassicWorld.com - Park Map Retrieved from http://www.jurassicworld.com/park-map
- ↑ The Lost World: Jurassic Park
- ↑ Jurassic Park III
- ↑ Tess Sharpe, The Evolution of Claire https://books.google.ie/books?id=LnRCDwAAQBAJ&dq=evolution+of+claire&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCz8zh4Y_cAhWkKMAKHcnQCd4Q6AEIKTAA
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Jurassic World
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
- ↑ Jurassic World Evolution
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 IGN, How Jurassic World Evolution Made Its T.Rex, available http://ie.ign.com/articles/2018/05/16/how-jurassic-world-evolution-made-its-trex-ign-first
- ↑ https://youtu.be/r5L7Iokg5RY Species Profile: Tyrannosaurus Rex
- ↑ Science. World’s only fossils of T. rex skin suggest it was covered in scales—not feathers. Accessed http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/06/world-s-only-fossils-t-rex-skin-suggest-it-was-covered-scales-not-feathers, 18 April 2018
Tyrannosaurus on Wikipedia