InGen Database Description
The Horseshoe Canyon Formation is located in south-western Alberta. It underlies the Whitemud Formation and overlays the Bearpaw Formation. It is part of the larger Edmonton Group and dates to the Campanian to early Maastrichtian stages of the Late Cretaceous epoch, 72 and 66 million years ago. It's named for the Horseshoe Canyon, a key feature of the Badlands.
The formation consists of a wide range of deposits, including sandstone, with mudstone, shale and coal also present. The formation includes floodplains, estuarine channels, coal swamps and marine waters.
The wide range of deposit types means that a large number of dinosaur species have been discovered here, along with mammal, reptile, amphibian, plant, fish and invertebrate fossils. The comparative lack of turtle and crocodilian remains indicates that there was a cooler climate at this formation, although a more recent study found that the reduced diversity was due to a change in the soil conditions.